Overview

Nail disorders in children and infants are not a very common occurrence, but at the same time, these are really tough to diagnose and manage. Parents usually do not have a clue about their kid having a nail disorder, which increases the chances of it turning worse eventually.

Nail diseases in children usually occur due to hereditary and congenital disorders and inflammatory, neoplastic, and infective nail diseases. It is very critical to diagnose these disorders at an early stage to manage them appropriately.

Types of nail disorders in children are discussed below. Have a look –

1. Beau’s line

These lines appear as indentations that run through the nails of the kid. These lines are usually visible in infants after birth. In older children, these lines may appear after suffering from high fever. Beau’s line can also be a result of zinc deficiency.

2. Koilonychia

This condition is also known as “spoon nails”. In this condition, the baby’s nails appear scooped out. These usually appear on big toes and thumbs. Koilonychia may be a result of iron deficiency as well.

3. Onycholysis

Onycholysis is when the nails of the baby get off the nail bed. It usually occurs due to trauma or injury to the finger, but sometimes, it also happens due to autoimmune diseases.

4. Onychoschizia nail disorder in children

In this condition, the end of the fingernails split and get frayed. This nail disorder in children commonly appears during the initial years of life. It usually appears on the thumb and big toes of children, and results due to repeated trauma, nail-biting, and thumbsucking.

5. Onychomadesis nail disorder in children

This is a really uncomfortable condition in which all the nails leave the nail bed at the cuticle and fall off completely. This usually occurs due to viral infections, particularly hand, mouth, and foot disease, measles, and Kawasaki disease, or any other disease that leads to high fever.

6. Paronychia nail disorder in children

This condition is the result of an infection near the edge of the nail. The symptoms are swelling, puss-filled nail corner, and swelling.

7. Leukonychia

In this condition, the fingernails have some white spots. It is a common misconception that this happens because of a minor trauma or due to excessive intake of vitamins and minerals.

8. Onychomycosis nail disorder in children

This condition is usual in adults and very less common in children. However, it is very tough to treat.

9. Nail pits

In this condition, small pinpoint indentations are found in the nail bed of the infants and young children. It is a pretty common occurrence.

Takeaway

Moreover, nail disorders can also be a sign of underlying disease in children such as psoriasis, autoimmune diseases, or connective tissue disorders. Hence, if you ever have a doubt about your child’s nails, you must immediately see a pediatrician or a pediatric dermatologist to rule out the possibility of any serious issues.

References – 

(1) – Nail disorders in infants and children

(2) – Disorders of nail in infants and children